!Epidendrum nocturnum Jacquin 1760 GROUP Nocturnum Type for the group

Photo by © Lourens Grobler.

Another Flower Brazil

plant in situ Boia Ceia Brazil Elevation 1 Meter

Photos by © Jay Pfahl.

Drawing

Drawing by © Jimenez, Hágsater & E.Santiago and The AMO Herbario Website

Fragrance Part shadeHot to CoolSummer toFall

Common Name Night Scented Epidendrum

Flower Size 3 to 5" [7.5 to 13.5 cm]

Found in Florida, Bahamas, Puerto Rico, Windward Islands, Leewards Islands, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Cuba, Jamaica, Cayman Islands, Trinidad & Tobago, Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Fr Guiana, Surinam, Brazil, Peru and Bolivia in wet montane forests as a large sized, reedstem, hot to cool growing epiphyte at elevations of 100 to 2000 meters, but at higher elevations it is found on rocks in leaf detrius, with a leafy, compressed, erect stem enveloped basally by a few tubular, scarious, acuminate sheaths and carrying leathery, linear-oblong to oblong-ligulate, sessile, acute leaves held towards the apex of the stem that blooms in the summer through fall with a terminal, to 3/4" [2 cm] long, occassionally branched, 1 to few flowered raceme which can produce flowers for more than one season, giving rise to, fragrant eucalyptus to anise scented [often nocturnally], large, showy, successively opening flowers occuring over months on newly mature and older pseudbulbs.

"Epidendrum nocturnum is the type of GROUP Nocturnum characterized by the simple stems carrying large star-shaped flowers usually with a 3-lobed lip. This species is a member of a complex of numerous taxa, that includes some apomyctic and polyploid entities (Veyret, 1982 ), especially in South America, characterized by the caespitose habit, few coriaceous leaves, and pluriracemose inflorescences, the racemes short, producing one star-shaped flower at a time, and the lip trilobed, the midlobe elongate and ensiform. Epidendrum nocturnum is recognized by the terete stems, narrow leaves and the pedicelate ovary about as long as the sepals, with the body of the fruit capsule occupying most of its length. In Mexico, it can only be confused with E. mesocarpum Hágsater, which has shorter, ancipitose stems, fewer, wider leaves, and a long pedicellate ovary, and the body of the fruit occupying about half the length and displaced towards the apex." Hagsater etal 2002

Synonyms Amphiglottis nocturna [Jacq.] Britt. 1924; Auliza nocturna [Jacq.]Small 1913; Epidendrum bahiense Rchb. f. 1859; Epidendrum carolinianum Lam. 1783; Epidendrum carpophorum Barb. Rodr. 1882; Epidendrum discolor A. Rich & Gal. 1845; Epidendrum latifolium (Lindl.) Garay & H.R.Sweet 1972; Epidendrum leucarachne Schltr. 1920; Epidendrum nocturnum var. angustifolium Stehlé 1939; Epidendrum nocturnum var. latifolium Lindl. 1837 ; Epidendrum nocturnum var. minor Schltr. 1924; Epidendrum nocturnum var. tridens (Poepp. & Endl.) Cogn. 1898; Epidendrum nocturnum var. tumuc-humaciense Veyret 1983; Epidendrum oliganthum Schltr. 1921; Epidendrum tridens Poepp. & Endl. 1837-8; Epidendrum tridens var. briegeri I.Bock 1982; Epidendrum tumuc-humaciense (Veyret) Carnevali & G.A.Romero 1996; Epidendrum tunguraguae Schltr. 1921; Nychosma nocturna [Jacq.]Raf. 1837; Nyctosma nocturna [Jacq.]Raf. 1837; Phaedrosanthus nocturnus [Jacq.]O.Ktze. 1904

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI Bonplandia Rchb.f 1854; Bonplandia Rchb.f 1855; Bonplandia Rchb.f 1856; Symbolae Antillanae Vol VI Orchidaceae Urban 1909; Symbolae Antillanae Vol VI Orchidaceae Urban 1909 as E nocturnum var latifolium; Symbolae Antillanae Vol VI Orchidaceae Urban 1909 as E nocturnum var tridens; Flora of Jamaica Fawcett & Rendle 1910 drawing fide; Die Orchideen Schlechter 1915; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 6: 71 Schlechter 1919; Atlas des Orchidees Cultivees Constantin 1920 drawing fide; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 7: 136 Schlechter 1920; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 7: 248 Schlechter 1920 as E leucarchne; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 7: 249 Schlechter 1920; Repert. Sp. Nov. Regni. Veg. Beih. 17: 36. Panama Schlechter 1922; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 10: 70 Bolivia Schlechter 1922; Repert. Sp. Nov. Regni. Veg. Beih. 19: 40. Costa Rica Schlechter 1923; Repert. Sp. Nov. Regni. Veg. Beih. 19: 120. Costa Rica Schlechter 1923; Repert. Sp. Nov. Regni. Veg. Beih. 19: 215. Costa Rica Schlechter 1923; Repert. Sp. Nov. Regni. Veg. Beih. 27: 68 Colombia Schlechter 1924; Repert. Sp. Nov. Regni. Veg. Beih. 27: 69 Colombia Schlechter 1924 E nocturnum var minor; The Genus Epidendrum Ames 1936; Catalogo Descriptivo de las Orquideas Cubanas Acuna 1938 as Amphiglottis nocturnum; Flore Descriptive des Antilles Francaises H. Stehle 1939; Flore Descriptive des Antilles Francaises H. Stehle 1939 as E nocturnum var angustifolium drawing fide; The Orchids of Panama L.O. Williams & P Allen 1946 drawing fide; Ceiba Vol 5 No 1 L O Williams 1956; AOS Bulletin Vol 27 No 6 1958; Orchids of Peru Vol 2 Fieldiana Schweinfurth 1959 drawing fide; Orchids of Peru Vol 2 Fieldiana Schweinfurth 1959 E nocturnum var minus; Native Orchids of Trinidad Schultes 1960; Native Orchids of Trinidad Schultes 1960 as Epidendrum nocturnum var. minus; AOS Bulletin Vol 30 No 9 1961; AOS Bulletin Vol 31 No 3 1962; AOS Bulletin Vol 33 #8 1964; Venezuelan Orchids Illustrated Vol 3 Dunsterville & Garay 1965 drawing fide; Encyclopedia of Cultivated Orchids Hawkes 1965; AOS Bulletin Vol 36 #9 1967; AOS Bulletin Vol 38 No 6 1969; Die Orchideen lieferung 1 Schlecter/Brieger 1970 photo good; Flora de Venezuela Foldats Volumen XV Part 3 1970; The Native Orchids of Florida Luer 1972 Photos/drawing fide; Flora of the Lesser Antilles Garay & Sweet 1974 drawing fide; Las Orquedias de El Salvador Vol 3 Las Orquedias De El Salvador Vol 1 Hamer 1974 drawing/photo fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 44 #8 1975; Orchidaceae Brasilense Band 1 Pabst & Dungs 1975 drawing fide; Orchidaceae Brasilense Band 1 Pabst & Dungs 1975 as E nocturnum var minor drawing ok; Orquideologia Vol 12 No 3/4 1977/8 photo fide; Die Orchideen 3 Auflage Bd 1 Sonderabdruck aus Schlechter Lieferung 9 513 - 576 Brieger, Maatsch and Senghas 1977 photo fide; Orquideologia Vol 12 No 2/3 1977/8 photo fide; Orchids of Venezuela, An Illustrated Field Guide Vol 1 Dunsterville & Garay 1979 drawing fide; Icones Planetarum Tropicarum plate 090 Dodson 1980 drawing fide; Icones Planetarum Tropicarum plate 097 Dodson 1980 as Epidendrum tungurahuae; Orquídea (Mexico City). 8(1): 3 1981 drawing fide; Las Orquedias de El Salvador Vol 3 Hamer 1981 drawing fide; Las Orquedias de El Salvador Vol 3 Hamer 1981 as Epidendrum latifolium drawing fide; Icones Planetarum Tropicarum plate 723 Dodson 1982 drawing fide; Icones Planetarum Tropicarum plate 428 Dodson 1982 see observation section; ORQUIDEA (Méx.) 9(2): 1984 photo fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 54 No 3 1985 photo fide; Las Orquideas Nativas de Cuba Aleida Diaz 1985 photo fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 55 No 3 1986 photo fide; The Orchids of Surinam Werkhoven 1986 photo fide; An Introdution to the Orchids of Mexico Wiard 1987 photo fide; Selbyana Vol 10 Orchids of Central America Hamer 1988 drawing fide; Orchids Travel By Air A Pictoral Safari Mulder, Mulder-Roelfsema and Schuiteman 1990 photo fide; Native Colombian Orchids Vol 2 COS 1991 photo fide; A Guide to Orchids of the World Hodgson, Paine and Anderson 1991 photo fide; The Manual Of Cultivated Orchid Species Bechtel, Cribb & Launert 1992 photo fide; The Orchids of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Ackerman 1992 drawing fide; Inventaire Taxominique des Plantes de la Guyane Francaise Vol II Les Orchidaceaes Cremers and Hoff 1992; The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Orchids Pridgeon 1992 photo fide; Icones Orchidacearum Peruviarum Plate 051 Bennett & Christenson 1993 as E nocturnum var tumuc-hunaciense drawing ok; Field Guide to the Orchids of Costa Rica and Panama Dressler 1993; Icones Orchidacearum 2 Plate 152 Hagsater & Dodson 1993 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 2 Plate 178 Hagsater & Dodson 1993 see recognition section; Orchids of Brazil McQueen 1993 photo good; An Orchid Flora Of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Ackerman 1995 drawing fide; Manual Of Orchids Stewart 1995; AOS Bulletin Vol 64 No 2 1995 photo fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 65 No 3 1996 photo fide; Iconografia de Orquideas Cubanas Perez & Bocourt 1997 drawing fide; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 305 Hagsater 1999 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 319 Hagsater 1999 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 350 Hagsater & Sanchez 1999 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 355 Hagsater 1999 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 376 Hagsater 1999 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 379 Hagsater 1999 see recognition section; Orchidaceae Antillanae Nir 2000; Harvard Pap. Bot. 5 #2: Carnevali etal. 2001; AOS Bulletin Vol 71 No 4 2002 photo fide; Botanica's Orchids Laurel Glen 2002 photo fide; Icones Orchidacearum 5 & 6 Plate 578 Hagsater, Soto 2002 drawing fide; Orquideas Nativas del Tachira Cesar Fernandez 2003 photo fide; Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana Vol 7 Steyermark, Berry, Yatskievych and Holst 2003; Manual de las Plantas de Costa Rica Vol 3 Hammel, Grayum, Herrera and Zamora 2003; Icones Orchidacearum 7 Plate 752 Hagsater, Sanchez 2004 see recognition section; Orchids of Bolivia Vol 2 Laelinae Vasquez and Ibisch 2004 photo fide; ; Orchids of The Brazilian Central Plateau Menezes 2004 photo fide; The World's Most Beautiful Orchids Allikas & Nash 2005 photo fide; Vanishing Beauty, Native Costa Rican Orchids Vol 1 Pupulin 2005 photo fide; Orchids of Mexico Hagsater, Soto, Salazar, Jimenez, Lopez and Dressler 2005 photo fide; The Orchids of Cuba Llamacho & Larramendi 2005 photofide; Orquideas de la Serrania del Baudo Misas Urreta 2005 drawing/photo fide; Orquideas de la Republica Dominicana Y Haiti Fernandez 2007 photo fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 77 no 1 2008 photo fide; Icones Orchidacearum 11 plate 1102 Hagsater & Soto 2008 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum Vol 11 Plate 1107 Hagsater & Sanchez 2008; Icones Orchidacearum Vol 11 Plate 1110 Hagsater & Sanchez 2008; Icones Orchidacearum 11 Plate 1119 Hagsater 2008 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 11 Plate 1135 Hagsater 2008 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 11 Plate 1148 Hagsater 2008 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 11 Plate 1149 Hagsater 2008 see recognition section; Orquideología Vol 26 #2 2009 photo fide; Orchid Species of Peru Zelenko Bermudez 2009 photo fide; Orchids of Costa Rica Vol 3 Morales 2009 photo fide; Icones Orchidacearum 13 Plate 1313 Hagsater 2010 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 13 Plate 1317 Hagsater & Santiago 2010 See recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 13 Plate 1358 Hagsater & Dodson 2010 See Recognition section; Las Orquideas del Peru Izerskyy & Bezverhov 2011 photo fide; Orchids of French Guiana Szlachetko, Veyret, etal 2012 drawing/photo fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 83 #1 2013 photo fide; Orchidees Du Bresil As Orchideas da Serra Do Castello Vol 3 Chiron & Bolsanello 2013 drawing/photo fide; Guia de Orquideas de Chiapas Carlos Rommel Beutelspacher Baigts 2013 photo fide; Orchids of the Department of Valle De Cauca Colombia Vol 2 Kolanowska, Hagsater etal. 2014 photo drawing/photo fide; Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles Ackerman 2014; Orchids of Tropical America Meisel 2014 photo fide; Orchids of the Darien Gap Kolanowska 2014 drawing fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 84 #3 2015 photo fide; Icones Orchidacearum 15 [1] Plate 1520 Hagsater & Sanchez 2015 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 15 [1] Plate 1523 Hagsater & Sanchez 2015 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 15 [1] Plate 1552 Hagsater & Sanchez 2015 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 15 [1] Plate 1561 Hagsater & Sanchez 2015 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 15 [1] Plate 1564 Hagsater & Sanchez 2015 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 15 [1] Plate 1565 Hagsater & Sanchez 2015 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 15 [1] Plate 1566 Hagsater & Sanchez 2015 see recognition section; Orchid Digest Vol 80 #2 2016; Icones Orchidacearum 15 [2] Plate 1576 Hagsater & Sanchez 2016 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 15 [2] Plate 1583 Hagsater & Sanchez 2016 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 15 [2] Plate 1589 Hagsater & Sanchez 2016 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 15 [2] Plate 1591 Hagsater & Sanchez 2016 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 15 [2] Plate 1594 Hagsater & Sanchez 2016 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 15 [2] Plate 1595 Hagsater & Sanchez 2016 see recognition section; Orquideas, Tesoro de Colombia Vol 2 Ortiz & Uribe 2017 drawing/photo fide; Icones Orchidacearum 16[1] Plate 1613 Hagsater & Santiago 2018 See Recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 16[1] Plate 1641 Hagsater & Sanchez 2018 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 16[2] Plate 1695 Hagsater & Jimenez 2018 as E bahiense see recognition section; Orchid Genera and Species in Guatemala Archila, Szlachchetko, Chiron, Lipinska, Mystkowska and Bertolini 2018; Orchid Digest Vol 83 #1 2019 photo fide; Orchid Digest Vol 83 #2 2019 photo fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 88 #11 2019 photo fide;

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------