Jay's Key West Orchid Species Collecting Home Page - Florida

This Site Dedicated to Orchid Lovers Everywhere!

Florida has a large and diverse orchid population from northern boreal, terrestrial Pogonias and tropical, terrestrial Habenaria and the tropical epiphytes like Brassia, Epidendrum and Cyrtopodium that inhabit it's cypress and hardwood hammocks. No other state in the United States has as many species as Florida but most of it's species ranges continue northward and westward into other states. The epiphytic or tree dwelling species are immigrants from the Caribbean and the surrounding tropical regions. So below are listed Forida's 87 species. Cyrtopodium punctata in it's natural cypress swamp setting.This photo and the next of Oncidium luridum were taken by Stephen Jones and lent to my page. Thanks Stephen! Great shots!

A mature Oncidium luridum in a Florida Swamp.

  1. Basiphyllaea corallicola [Small]Ames

  2. Bletia purpurea [Lamb.] D.C.
  3. Photo courtesy of Robert Weyman Bussey.

    to This species is found from Florida south to Brazil where they are intermediate to warm growing terrestrials or on rocks in dry woods and fields, or at the base of tree trunks or in swamps up to 2000 meters in elevation that bloom in the spring and early summer.

    Synonyms Bletia acutipetala W. Hook.; Bletia alta Hitchc. in part; Bletia havanensis A. Rich.; Bletia pallida Lodd.; Bletia pottsii S. Wats; Bletia pulchella R.H. Torr.; Bletia shepherdii Hook.; Bletia tuberosa Ames; Bletia verecunda [Salisb.] R.Br.; Cymbidium floridum Salisb.; Cymbidium verecundum Sw.; Limodorum floridum Salisb.; *Limodoroum purpureum Lam.; Limodorum trifidum Michx.; Limodorum tuberosum L. inpart; Limodorum verecundum Salisb.; Regnellia purpurea Barb. Rodr.; Thiebautia nervosa Colla

  4. Brassia caudata (L.) Lindl. 1824
  5. Photo courtesy of Charles Wilson

    Found from Florida south through the Caribbean and All of central America south to Peru as an epiphyte at elevations of sealevel to 700 meters where it blooms on an arcuate, long, many flowered inflorescence occuring in the spring.

    Synonyms Brassia caudata var. hieroglyphica Rchb. f. 1881; Brassia lewisii Rolfe 1893; Brassia longissima var. minor Schltr. 1922; *Epidendrum caudatum L. 1763; Malaxis caudata (L.) Willd. 1805; Oncidium caudatum (L.) Rchb. f. 1863

  6. Calopogon barbatus (Walter) Ames 1908
  7. Photo courtesy of Prem Subrahmanyam.

    Common Name Bearded Grass Pink

    Flower Size 1 1/4" Across

    Found as a cool to cold growing, smaller terrestrial in the Southeastern US where it blooms in the late winter and early spring on a basal, long, erect to arching, few to several, successive flowered inflorescence. This species flowers a month or so before C. pallidus and tuberosus and the flowers are a miniature version as well as the plant.

    Synonyms Calopogon graminifolius Ell. ex Weatherby & Griscom 1934; Calopogon parviflorus Lindl. 1840; Calopogon pulchellus var graminifloilus Ell. 1824; Limodorum graminifolium Small 1938; Limodorum parviflorum (Lindl.) Nash 1895; *Ophrys barbata Walter 1788

  8. Calopogon barbatus var. multiflorus [Lindley]Correll

  9. Calopogon pallidus Chapman
  10. Photo courtesy of Prem Subrahmanyam.

    to A Florida native orchid found in pine barren and cypress bogs and flowers from February through July.

    Synonyms Helleborine pallida (Chapm.) Kuntze; Limodorum pallidum (Chapm.) C. Mohr


    ~Calopogon pulchellus [Salisb.]R. Brown - See Calopogon tuberosus [L.]Britton, Stearns, & Pogg.

  11. Calopogon tuberosus 'Jane' AM-CHM/AOS [L.]Britton, Stearns & Pogg.
  12. Photo and awarded plant courtesy of Wilford Neptune.

    to Found in Eastern Canada as well as all of the United States to the east of the Mississippi river as a cool to warm growing terrestrial that blooms in the late spring and summer.

    Synonyms Calopogon pulchellus [Salisb.]R. Br.; Limordium pulchellum Salisb.; *Limodorum tuberculosum Thouars

  13. Campylocentrum pachyrrhizum (Rchb. f.) Rolfe 1908
  14. Photo courtesy of Lisa Wood and Andy Nelson


    Common Name Thick Rooted Orchid

    Flower Size 1/4" or Less

    Found in the western everglades in Florida, Central Ameriaca and Northern South America as a leafless monopodial epiphyte at elevations of sealevel to 1400 meters where they bloom in the late winter and spring. This photo is of the plant and fruits only, sometime soon I may have a photo of the actual flowers.

    Synonyms Aeranthes pachyrrhizus Rchb. f. 1865; Aeranthes spathesceus Griseb. 1866; *Aeranthus pachyrrhizus Rchb. f. 1865; Aeranthes spathescens Griseb.1866; Campylocentrum rimbachii Schltr. 1921


    ~Centrogenium setaceum [Lindley]Schltr. - See Eltroplectris calcarata (Sw.) Garay & H.R. Sweet 1972

  15. Cleistes divaricata [L]Ames
  16. Corallorhiza wisteriana Conrad 1829
  17. Photo courtesy of Mike Abrams


    Common Name Spring Coral-Root or Wister's Coral-root

    An American, saprophytic, leafless terrestrial orchid from Pennsylvania and West Virginia south to Florida and then west to Utah and Arizona and south to Mexico where it is found in shady hardwoods and swampy woodlands and flowers on an erect, racemose, many flowered, pink inflorescence arising out of the ground and occuring in winter and spring. It's common name is either Spring Coral-root, or Wister's Coral-root.

  18. Cranichis muscosa Sw. 1788
  19. Photo courtesy of Mark Nir and Orchidaceae Antillianae


    Flower Size 1/4"

    Found as a cool to hot growing terrestrial herb occuring in Florida, Central America, the Caribbean and South America at elevations of 200 to 2950 meters where it blooms in the winter on a terminal, erect, stout, purple-green, glabrous scape with leaflike sheaths ending in a subdensly many flowered inflorescence with successively opening nonresupinate flowers.

    Synonyms Cranichis bradei Schltr. 1922Cranichis cylindrostchys Schlechter 1920; Cranichis ovata Wikstrom 1827;

  20. Cyrtopodium punctatum [L.]Lindley
  21. Photo courtesy of Jay Pfahl

    to A native of Florida south through the Guineas that blooms in late spring, commonly called the cigar orchid because of it's pseudobulb's shape, it has deciduous leaves that it loses in the fall ,and thus should have less water in the winter, than when it is growing. The inflorecense appears just after the new lead for a pseudobulb begins to appear. This species is a warm growing epiphyte or sometimes terrestrial found on dead or living trees, logs and stumps or in soil between rocks or on boulders at altitudes up to 1400 meters. A paste is made for bookbinding by extracting the juices from the psudobulbs.

    Synonyms *Epidendrum punctatum L.

  22. !Eltroplectris calcarata (Sw.) Garay & H.R. Sweet 1972
  23. Photo courtesy of Mark Nir and Orchidaceae Antillanae


    Flower Size 2 1/2"

    This is a hot to cool growing terrestrial orchid found from South Florida through the Caribbean to Trinidad, Colombia and Brazil that blooms on a 2' erect, pubescent, loosely few flowered inflorescence that has basal sheaths and the fragrant flowers occur in the late winter and spring.

    SynonymsCentrogenium calcaratum (Sw.) Schltr. 1920; Centrogenium setaceum (Lindl.) Schltr. 1920; Eltroplectris acuminata Raf. 1837; *Neottia calcarata Sw. 1806; Pelexia calcarata (Sw.) Cogn. 1909; Pelexia domingensis Lindley 1840; Pelexia setacea Lindl. 1840; Pelexia setacea var glabra Cogn. 1909; Spiranthes calcarata (Sw.) Jimenez 1962; Stenorrhynchos calcaratum (Sw.) Rich. 1818

  24. Encyclia boothiana (Lindl.) Dressler
  25. Photo courtesy of Jay Pfahl

    to A Florida native, also found in the Caribbean and Mexico, commonly called the dollar orchid for the shape of it's pseudobulbs, it grows best on a wood mount in semi shade and will flower in the summer.

    Synonyms Encyclia bulbosa (Vell.) Pabst; Epicladium boothianum Small; Epidendrum bidentatum Lindley ; Epidendrum boothianum Lindley;Epidendrum bulbosum Vell.; Epidendrum erythronioides Small; Hormidium boothianum (Lindl.) Brieger

  26. Encyclia cochleata [L.] Lemee
  27. Photo courtesy of Jay Pfahl

    to The 'cockleshell orchid' has upside down flowers and can bloom for 6 months starting in the spring with successive non-fragrant flowers. They originate from Florida south to the north coast of South America as an epiphyte found in dense forests at altitudes up to 1900 meters that grow warm and require even water and fertilizer throughout the year. People have been known to eat the cooked pseudobulbs.

    Synonyms Anacheilium cochleatum Hoffmannsegg; Epidendrum cochleatum L.; Phaedrosanthus cochleatus O.Ktze.; Prosthechea cochleata (L.) W. E. Higgins

  28. Encyclia pygmaea (Hook.) Dressler
  29. Photo courtesy of Dale and Deni Borders

    to A common creeping epiphyte found in all tropical America including Florida and has the smallest flowers of the genus.

    Synonyms Aulizeum pygmaeum (Hook.) Benth.; Coelogyne triptera Brongn.; Epidendrum caespitosum Poepp. & Endl.; Epidendrum monanthum Schltr.; Epidendrum monanthum Steud.; *Epidendrum pygmaeum Hook.; Epidendrum uniflorum Lindl.; Hormidium humile (Cogn.) Schltr.; Hormidium pseudopygmaeum Finet; Hormidium pygmaeum (Hook.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Hemsl.; Hormidium tripterum (Brongn.) Cogn.; Hormidium uniflorum (Lindl.) Heynh.; Microstylis humilis Cogn.; Prosthechea pygmaea (Hook.) W. E. Higgins

  30. Encyclia tampense Small
  31. Photo courtesy of Jay Pfahl

    A Florida native, a warm grower that likes wood mounts, and blooms in the spring and has a sweet scent. Easy to attach to palm trees in South Florida and does not need any attention in the way of water or fertilizer.

    Synonyms Epidendrum tampense Lindley

  32. Epidendrum anceps Jacq.
  33. Photo courtesy of Dale and Deni BordersOrange cultivar Photo courtesy of Stephen Jones.

    to A Florida native, also found in all the tropical Americas, grows warm to intermediate and is an epiphyte or occasional lithophyte in cypress swamps and damp forests at altitudes up to 2000 meters, and blooms throughout the year.

    Synonyms Amphiglottis anceps [Jacq.]Britt; Amphiglottis lurida Salisb.; Epidendrum amphistomum A. Rich; Epidendrum cearense Barb. Rod.b; Epidendrum ensatum Rich & Gal.; Epidendrum fuscatum Sm.; Epidendrum galeottianum A. Rich. & Galeotii; Epidendrum musciferum Lindley; Epidendrum schenckianum Krzl.; Epidendrum schreineri Barb. Rodr.; Epidendrum secundum Sw.;Epidendrum virescens Lodd.; Epidendrum viridipurpureum Hooker

  34. Epidendrum conopseum R. Br. in W.T. Aiton
  35. Photo courtesy of Prem Subrahmanyam

    to This is a Floridian as well as Mexican epiphytic orchid found on trees in low woods and cypress swamps and it has fragrant flowers mainly from mid-winter through the end of summer.

    Synonyms Amphiglottis conopsea [R.Br.] Small; Larnandra conopsea (R. Br.) Raf.; Larnandra magnolia Raf.

  36. Epidendrum difforme Jacq.
  37. Photo courtesy of Dale and Deni Borders.

    to This is an variable pendant or erect epiphytic species from the tropical Americas up to elevations of 3000 meters and may bloom at any time during the year but mostly in the late spring and summer and is an intermediate to cool growing specis.

    Synonyms Amphiglottis difforme [Jacq.]Britt. ; Amphiglottis latilabra (Lindl.) Acuña; Auliza difformis [Jacq.]Small; Epidendrum apaganum Mansf.; Epidendrum arachnoideum Barb. Rodr.; Epidendrum chlorocorymbos Schltr.; Epidendrum difforme (Jacq.) Sw.; Epidendrum latilabre Lindley; Epidendrum latilabrum Lindl.; Epidendrum radiatum Hoffmanns.; Epidendrum subumbellatum Hoffmanns.; Epidendrum umbellatum Sw.; Epidendrum umbelliferum J.F. Gmel.; Epidendrum virens Hoffmanns.; Neolehmannia apagana (Mansf.) Garay & Dunst.; Neolehmannia difformis (Jacq.) Pabst; Neolehmannia latilabris (Lindl.) Pabst;

  38. Epidendrum nocturnum Jacquin
  39. Photo courtesy Ruth Mikellsen.

    to Found in all the tropical Americas as an epiphyte, but at higher elevations it is found on rocks in leaf detrius, it blooms in the summer through fall and is an intermediate species.

    Synonyms Amphiglottis nocturna [Jacq.] Britt.; Auliza nocturna [Jacq.]Small; Epidendrum bahiense Rchb. f.; Epidendrum buenaventurae F. Lehm. & Kraenzl.; Epidendrum carolinianum Lam.; Epidendrum carpophorum Barb. Rodr.; Epidendrum discolor A. Rich & Gal.; Epidendrum leucarachne Schltr.; Epidendrum nocturnum var. angustifolium Stehlé; Epidendrum nocturnum var. minor Schltr.; Epidendrum nocturnum var. minus Cogn.; Epidendrum nocturnum var. tridens (Poepp. & Endl.) Cogn.; Epidendrum oliganthum Schltr.; Epidendrum spruceanum Lindl.; Epidendrum tridens Poepp. & Endl.; Nychosma nocturna [Jacq.]Raf.; Nyctosma nocturna [Jacq.]Raf.; Phaedrosanthus nocturnus [Jacq.]O.Ktze.

    ~Epidendrum pygmaeaum Hkr. - See Encyclia pygmaea (Hook.) Dressler

  40. Epidendrum rigidum Jacq. 1760
  41. Photo courtesy of Noble Bashor.

    plant in situ in the Fahkahatchee Strand in southern Florida Photo courtesy of Jay Pfahl


    Common Name Rigid Epidendrum

    Flower Size to 1/2"

    Found in the Caribbean as well as Mexico south to Peru and Venezuela as a reedstem cool to hot growing epiphyte in tropical rainforests and tropical semi-deciduous forests, as well as mangrove and other lowland communities at elevations of sealevel to 1350 meters that has a terminal, short to 6", erect or arching raceme arising on mature canes that has a laterally compressed rachis with prominent conduplicate, spaced floral bracts that are longer than the ovaries, with 2 ranked, minute successive opening flowers that appear in the spring and fall.

    Synonyms Epidendrum cardiophorum Schltr. 1911; Epidendrum pium Rchb. f. 1881; Spathiger rigidus (Jacq.) Small 1913

  42. Epidendrum strobiliferum Rchb. f. 1858
  43. Photo courtesy of Dale and Deni Borders

    Found in Florida south to Peru and Venzuela as a hot growing epiphyte taht occurs at elevations of sealevel to 900 meters that blooms in the fall. Best mounted on tree fern or driftwood and given moderate shade and a smewhat drier winter rest.

    Synonyms Epidendrum mosenii Barb. Rodr. 1881; Epidendrum rodriguesii Cogn. 1898; Epidendrum strobiliferum var. swartzii Rchb. f. ex Griseb.1864; Epidendrum verecundum Schltr. 1922; Isochilus ramosus H. Focke 1851; Spathiger strobiliferus (Rchb. f.) Small 1933


    ~Erythrodes querceticola [Lindley]Ames - See Platythelys querceticola (Lindl.) Garay 1977

  44. Eulophia alta [L.]Fawc. & Rendle
  45. Eulophia ecristata [Fernald] Ames
  46. Galeandra beyrichii Rchb.f
  47. Habenaria blephariglottis (Willd.) Hook.
  48. Photo courtesy of Mike Abrams

    to A terrestrial orchid of the Eastern US and Canada that is found in thickets along streams, swamps, blooms in summer and is commonly called the White Fringed Orchid.

    Synonyms Blephariglottis albiflora ?; *Blephariglottis blephariglottis Willd.; Platanthera blephariglottis (Willd.) Lindl.


  49. Habenaria chapmanii [Small] Ames
  50. Habenaria ciliaris R.Br.
  51. Photo courtesy of Mike Abrams

    to A cool growing terrestrial found in the eastern US growing in wet pine barrens, wet meadows and forests, it blooms in the summer and early fall and has the common name Yellow Fringed Orchid.

    Synonyms Blephariglottis ciliaris (L.) Rydb.; *Orchis cilaris L.; Platanthera ciliaris (L.) Lindl.


  52. Habenaria clavellata [Michx.]Spreng
  53. Habenaria cristata [Michx.] R. Br.
  54. Habenaria distans Griseb.
  55. Habenaria flava [L.]R. Br.
  56. Habenaria integra [Nutt.] Spreng.

  57. Habenaria nivea Lindley
  58. Photo courtesy of Mike Abrams

    to A cool growing terrestrial from the eastern US growing in swamps, pine barrens and wet grasslands this orchid blooms in the summer and has the common name, the Snowy Orchid.

    Synonyms Gymnadenia nivea Nutt.; Gymnadeniopsis nivea [Nutt.] Rybd.; Platanthera nivea (Nutt.) Luer

  59. Habenaria odontopetala Rchb. f. 1844
  60. Plant and Inflorescence Photo courtesy of Cheryl B. McDonald

    to to LATE

    Common Name The Toothed Rein Orchis - The Toothed Habenaria

    Flower Size 1" [2.5 cm]

    Found in Florida, Mexico, WEt Indies and Central America as a Large sized, cool to warm growing terrestrial in damp hardwood hammocks with a stem with 5 to 12, glossy green, elliptic leaves from which a terminal, 2' [60 cm] long, several to many flowered [10 to 60], racemose inflorescence with basal leaf sheaths and linear-elliptic floral bracts and flowers that have an unpleasant odor which blooms in the fall through late winter.

    Synonyms Habenaria garberi Porter 1880; Habenaria strictissima var. odontopetala (Rchb. f.) L.O. Williams 1939; Habenella garberi (Porter) Small 1903;Platanthera garberi (Porter) Chapm. 1897

  61. Habenaria quinquseta [Michx.]Sw.
  62. Habenaria repens Nutt.
  63. ~Habenaria strictissima Rchb.f var odontopetala [Rchb.f]L.O.Wms. - See Habenaria odontopetala Rchb. f. 1844

  64. Harrisella porrecta [Rchb.f] Fawc. & Rendl.
  65. Hexalectris spicata (Walter) Barnhart 1904
  66. Photo courtesy Victor Engel and his Webpage

    Common Name Crested Coral Root

    Flower Size to about 2"

    Found from the Southeastern US to Arizona and New Mexico as a highly variable saprophytic cold growing leafless terrestrial that blooms on an erect, 2 to 14" long, racemose, pink inflorescence occuring in the late spring through fall.

    Synonyms *Arethusa spicata Walter 1788; Corallorhiza arizonica S. Wats. 1881; Corallorhiza spicata (Walter) Tidestr. 1941; Bletia aphylla Nutt. 1918; Hexalectris aphylla Raf. 18896; Hexalectris squamosa Raf. 1836

  67. Ionopsis utricularioides [Sw.]Lindley
  68. Photo courtesy of Jay Pfahl

    to I collected this plant in Jamaica but they are widespread in the American tropics and subtropics even being found rarely in Florida, it blooms in the spring and summer, is an intermediate to warm grower found at altitudes up to 1100 meters as an epiphyte in humid forests and citrus groves. It is a small plant with ellipsoid compressed 1/2" pseudobulbs that bear a single apical leaf and 2 to 3, 6" linear or lanceolate, carinate, stiff and imbricate leaves that surround and enfold the rhizome and, a basal, erect, long, branching inflorescence that has numerous flowers that open in succession over months. The color of the flowers ranges from white to pink, lavender to purple and are quite a site in full bloom.

    Synonyms Cybelion pallidiflorum (Hook. f.) Spreng.; Cybelion pulchellum (Kunth) Spreng.; Cybelion tenerum (Lindl.) Steud.; Cybelion utriculariae (Sw.) Spreng.; Dendrobium utricularioides [Sw.]Swartz; Epidendrum calcaratum Sessé & Moc.; Epidendrum crenatum Vell.; *Epidendrum utricularioides Sw.; Iantha pallidiflora Hkr.; Ionopsis gardneri Lindl.; Ionopsis pallidiflora Lindley; Ionopsis paniculata Lindl.; Ionopsis pulchella Kunth; Ionopsis tenera Lindley; Ionopsis zonalis Lindley & Paxt.

  69. Isotria verticillata (Willd.) Raf.
  70. Photo courtesy of Thomas Kornack

    to This species is found in the eastern United States and is a cool growing terrestrial from moist sandy pinewoods or on mixed hardwood slopes at altitudes of 280 to 700 meters and along forested stream banks. It's flowering season is in the early spring.

    Synonyms *Arethusa vetricillata Muhl ex Willd.; Pogonia verticillata Nutt.

  71. Lepanthopsis melanantha [Rchb.f] Ames
  72. ~Liparis elata Lindley - See - See Liparis nervosa (Thunb.) Lindl. 1830

  73. Liparis nervosa (Thunb.) Lindl. 1830
  74. Photo courtesy of Ichiro "Haru" Ohsaka

    plant in situ in the Fahcahatchee Strand Southern Florida Photo courtesy of Jay Pfahl


    Flower Size 1/2"

    Found in tropical America, Tropical Africa and from India to the Philippines as a wet region, cool to hot growing terrestrial or lithophyte of the forest understory, except at higher elevations in cloud forest where it can be found on exposed roadbanks, at elevations of 500 to 1800 meters where it will bloom in the summer and fall on a 10 to 15" long inflorescence that has a many flowered, terminal, erect raceme arising with a new pseudobulb growth. This orchid is probably the most widespread orchid in the world being pan-tropical.

    Synonyms Bletia bicallosa D. Don 1825; Cymbidium bituberculatum Hook. 1824; Cymbidium nervosum Sw. 1799; Dituilis nepalensis Raf. 1836; Empusa paradoxa Lindl. 1824; Epidendrum nervosum (Thunb.) Thunb. 1794; Eulophia bicallosa (D. Don) P.F. Hunt & Summerh. 1966; Leptorchis bicornis (Ridl.) Kuntze 1891; Leptorchis bituberculata (Lindl.) Kuntze 1891; Leptorchis eggersii (Rchb. f.) Kuntze 1891; Leptorchis elata (Lindl.) Kuntze 1891; Leptorchis guineensis (Lindl.) Kuntze 1891; Leptorchis lutea (Ridl.) Kuntze 1891; Leptorchis nervosa (Lindl.) Kuntze 1891; Leptorchis odontostoma (Rchb. f.) Kuntze 1891; Leptorchis odorata (Lindl.) Kuntze 1891; Leptorchis olivacea (Lindl.) Kuntze 1891; Limodorum bicallosum Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don 1825; Liparis bambusaefolia Makino 1892; Liparis bicallosa (D. Don) Schltr. 1919; Liparis bicallosa var. hachijoensis Kitam. 1966; Liparis bicornis Ridl. 1885; Liparis bituberculata (Hook.) Lindl. 1825; Liparis bituberculata var. formosana Ridl. 1886; Liparis cornicaulis Makino 1891; Liparis eggersii Rchb. f. 1885; Liparis elata Lindl. 1828; Liparis elata var. inundata Barb. Rodr. 1877; Liparis elata var. latifolia Ridl. 1886; Liparis elata var. longifolia Cogn. 1895; Liparis elata var. purpurascens Regel 1856; Liparis elata var. rufina Ridl. 1886; Liparis formosana Rchb. f 1880; Liparis guamensis Ames 1914; Liparis guineensis Lindl. 1834; Liparis hachijoensis Nakai 1921; Liparis longiscapa (Rolfe ex Downie) Gagnep. 1932; Liparis lutea Ridl. 1885; Liparis melanoglossa Schltr. 1911; Liparis nyassana Schltr. 1915; Liparis odontostoma Rchb. f. 1876; Liparis odorata Lindl. 1830; Liparis odorata var. intacta Kerr 1927; Liparis odorata var. longiscapa Rolfe ex Downie 1925; Liparis olivacea Lindl. 1830; Liparis paradoxa Rchb. f. 1861; Liparis perrieri Schltr. 1913; Liparis rufina Rchb. f. ex Rolfe ?; Liparis siamensis Rolfe ex Downie 1925; Malaxis lancifolia Sm. 1814; Malaxis nervosa Sw. 1800; Malaxis odorata Willd. 1805; *Ophrys nervosa Thunb. 1784; Sturmia bituberculata Rchb. f. 1854; Sturmia nervosa (Thunb.) Rchb. f. 1855; Tribrachia racemosa Lindl. ex Schltr. ?

  75. Listera australis Lindl.
  76. Photo Courtesy Of Walter Mays

    to This species is from the Eastern and Southern US and Eastern Canada and is found in bogs and swamps and is commonly called the Southern Twayblade.

    Synonyms Calanthe australis Aiton ex Loudon; Diphryllum australe Kuntze; Neottia australis (Lindl.) Rchb. f.; Ophrys australis[Lindley] House; Spiranthes australis (Rchb. f.) Lindl.

  77. Macradenia lutescens R.Br.
  78. Malaxis spicata Sw.
  79. Malaxis unifolia Michx.
  80. Maxillaria crassifolia [Lindley] Rchb.f

  81. Oeceoclades maculata [Lindley]Lindley
  82. Plant in situ Florida Keys, With Vanilla SpeciesPhoto courtesy of Jay Pfahl

    to This is an American erect terrestrial orchid found from southern Florida through the Caribbean and South America and east to all tropical Africa. It has nonfragrant flowers that appear in the fall and is a warm growing with even watering and fertilizer year round.

    Synonyms Aerobion maculatum (Lindl.) Spreng.; *Angraecum maculatum Lindley; Eulophia ledienii Stein ex N.E.Br] DeWild.; Eulopia maculata [Lindley]Rchb.f; Eulophidium leidienii (Stein) Willd.; Eulophidium maculata [Lindley]Pfitz; Eulophidium nyassanum Schlechter; Eulophidium warneckianum Kraenzel; Geodorum pictum Link & Otto; Graphorchis maculata (Lindl.) Kuntze; Graphorkis maculata [Lindley]O. Ktze.; Limodorum maculatum Lodd.


  83. Oncidium carthagenense [Jacq]Swartz
  84. Photo courtesy of Jay Pfahl

    to Found From Mexico thru Colombia, Venezuela and the Caribbean as an epiphyte, almost always along river courses in high trees or on the rocks below, it grows warm to intermediate at altitudes of sealevel to 1500 meters and needs a dry rest in the winter after the bloom season which is spring and summer.

    Synonyms *Epidendrum carthagenense Jacq.; Lophiaris carthagenensis (Sw.) Braem; Oncidium andreanum (Cogn.) Garay; Oncidium carthagenense var. andreanum Cogn.; Oncidium carthagenense var. klotzschii Lindl.; Oncidium carthagenense var. oerstedii (Rchb. f.) Lindl.; Oncidium carthagenense var. sanguineum Lindl.; Oncidium carthagenense var. swartzii Lindl.; Oncidium henchmanni Lodd. ex Lindl.; Oncidium huntianum Hook.; Oncidium kymatoides Kraenzel; Oncidium obsoletum A. Rich & Gal.;nOncidium oerstedii Rchb.f.; Oncidium oerstedii var. crispiflorum Schltr.; Oncidium panduriferum Kunth; Oncidium roseum Lodd. ex Lindl.; Oncidium sanguineum Lindley; Oncidium sanguineum var roseum [Lodd.]Regel; Oncidium undulatum Salisb.

    ~Oncidium floridianum Ames - See Tolumnia bahamaense [Nash] Braem

  85. Oncidium luridum Lindl. 1823
  86. Photo courtesy of Weyman Bussey

    Color Variation from Jalapa Mexico Photo courtesy of Jay Pfahl


    Common Name Dingy Flowered Oncidium

    Flower Size 3/4" to 1"

    Found in Florida, the West Indies and Central America to Peru at elevations of sea level to 1400 meters where it blooms in the spring through fall on a panicle with short branches and scarious sheaths that can attain 8 feet and is a large, cool to hot growing, mule eared epiphyte.

    Synonyms Cymbidium guttatum [L.]Willd. 1805; Cyrtochilum undulatum Kunth 1816; Cyrtochilum ventilabrum (Rchb. f. & Warsz.) Kraenzl. 1917; Epidendrum guttatum L. 1753; Lophiaris lurida (Lindl.) Braem 1993; Oncidium guttatum (L.) Rchb. f. 1863; Oncidium undulatum Sw. 1812

    ~*Oncidium variegatum (Sw.) Willd. - See Tolumnia variegata (Hook.) Braem Photo courtesy of Jay Pfahl

  87. !Platythelys querceticola (Lindl.) Garay 1977
  88. Photo courtesy of Mark Nir and Orchidaceae Antillannae


    Flower Size less than 1/4"

    Found as a hot to cool growing terrestrial rhizomatous plant in Southeast US to Texas, Central America, South America and the Caribbean at elevations of 400 to 1500 meters where it blooms at any time of the year on an erect, terminal, to 4" long, racemose, many successively flowered inflorescence.

    Synonyms Erythrodes querceticola (Lindl.) Ames 1915; Erythrodes vaginata (Hook.) Ames 1915; Goodyera quercicola Chapm. 1860; Physurus humidicola Schltr. 1918; Physurus parviflorus Schltr. 1925; *Physurus querceticola Lindl. 1840; Physurus sagraeanus A. Rich. ?; Physurus trilobulatus Schltr. 1918; Physurus vaginatus Hook. 1841; Platythelys vaginata (Hook.) Garay 1977

  89. Pleurothallis gelida Lindley
  90. Pogonia ophioglossoides (L.) Ker Gawl.
  91. Photo courtesy of Mike Abrams

    to This terrestrial orchid is found from Eastern Canada south to Florida and west to Minnesota and Missouri that blooms in the spring and summer and has the common name Rose Pogonia or Adder's Mouth.

  92. Polyradicion lindenii [Lindley]Garay
  93. Photo courtesy of Stephen Jones.

    to This south Florida, Bahamas, and Cuba native is found in deep swamp forest. The orchid pictured is in the Fakahatchee strand in the northern everglades. Good hunting Stephen! They are small leafless epiphytes and their roots have chloroplasts to create the chlorophyl that the plant needs to survive, this function is normally taken care of by the leaves which in this genus are missing. This is a rare and rarely seen plant that is not offered often for the cultivator of orchids.

    Synonyms Aeranthes lindenii (Lindl.) Rchb. f.; Aeranthus lindenii [Lindley]Rchb.f.; *Angraecum lindenii Lindley; Dendrophylax lindenii Bth. ex Rolfe; Polyrrhiza lindenii [Lindley]Cogn. in Urb.

  94. Polystachya concreta [Jacq.] Garay & Sweet
  95. Photo courtesy of Jay Pfahl


    Polystachya luteola [Sw.]Hkr. - See Polystachya concreta [Jacq.] Garay & Sweet

    Synonyms Callista flavescens (Lindl.) Kuntze; Cranichis luteola Sw.; Dendrobium flavescens Lindley; Dendrobium polystachyon Sw.; Dendrorchis minuta O. Ktze.; Dendrorchis tessellata (Lindl.) Kuntze; *Epidendrum concretum Jacq.; Epidendrum minutum Aubl.; Onychium flavescens Blume; Polystachya flavescens Lindley; Polystachya luteola [Sw.]Hooker; Polystachya mauritiana Sprengel; Polystachys minuta Britton; Polystachys modesta Rchb.f.; Polystachys tesselata Lindley

  96. Ponthievia racemosa [Walt.] Muhr
  97. Prescotia oligantha [Sw.] Lindley 1840
  98. Photo courtesy of Dale and Deni Borders

    The photo says Cranichis sp. but I feel that this is Prescotia oligantha.

    Found as an inconspicuous terrestrial in Florida, the West Indies, Guatemala, Panama and much of South America to Paraguay in deep shade under trees in hammocks or forests where it blooms on an erect, slender, terminal, densely flowered inflorescence with up to 50 non-resupinate flowers occuring in February in Florida.

    Synonyms Cranichis micrantha Sprengel 1826; *Cranichis oligantha Sw. 1788; Prescotia filiformis Schlechter 1920; Prescotia gracilis Schlechter 1920; Prescotia myosurus Rchb.f ex Griseb. 1864; Prescotia panamensis Schlechter 1920; Prescotia polysphaera Schlechter 1920; Prescotia tenuis Lindley 1840; Prescotia viacola Barb Rodr var polyphylla Cogn. 1906; Serapias pumila Vellozo 1827;

  99. Spiranthes beckii Lindley
  100. Spiranthes cernua [L.] L.C.Rich
  101. ~Spiranthes cernua var odorata [Nutt.] Correl - See Spiranthes odorata (Nutt.) Lindl. 1834

  102. Spiranthes cranichoides [Greisb.] Cogn.
  103. Spiranthes elata [Sw.] L.C. Rich
  104. Spiranthes gracilis [Bigel.] Beck
  105. Spiranthes gracilis var brevilabis [Lindley]Correll
  106. Spiranthes gracilis var floridana [Wherry]Correll
  107. Spiranthes laciniata [Small]Ames
  108. Photo courtesy of Stephen Jones.

    to This is a Florida native orchid that is often fragrant and flowers in the summer, found in wet ground or cypress swamps, marshes or ponds. It is commonly called the Lace Lip Spiral Orchid as the flowers have a tendency to spiral around the inflorescence.

    Synonyms *Gyrostachys laciniata Small

  109. Spiranthes longilabris Lindley
  110. Spiranthes odorata (Nutt.) Lindl. 1834
  111. Photo courtesy of Wilford Neptune

    Common Name Fragrant Ladie's Tresses

    This is a Southeastern American terrestrial species of woodlands, grassy alkaline marshes, and wet depressions in grasslands and flowers on an erect, terminal, many flowered, spicate inflorescence with strongly fragrant flowers occuring in the fall till spring.

    Synonyms Gyrostachys odorata (Lindl.) Kuntze 1891; Gyrostachys triloba Sm 1898; Ibidium odoratum (Nutt.) House 1906; Ibidium trilobum Sm. 1913; *Neottia odorata Nutt. 1834; Spiranthes cernua [L.] L. C. Rich. var odorata [Nutth.] Correll 1940; Triorchis odorata [Nutth.] Nieuwl. 1913; Triorchis triloba [Sm.] House 1920

    ~Spiranthes orchioides [Sw.]A. Rich. - See Stenorrhynchos lanceolatum (Aubl.) Rich. ex Spreng. 1826

  112. Spiranthes ovalis Lindley
  113. Spiranthes polyantha Rchb.f
  114. Spiranthes praecox [Walt.] S. Wats.
  115. Spiranthes tortilis [Sw.]L.C. Rich.
  116. Spiranthes vernalis Englm. & Gray
  117. Stenorrhynchos lanceolatum (Aubl.) Rich. ex Spreng. 1826
  118. Photo courtesy of Jay Pfahl


    Common Name

    Flower Size 1"

    An erect, hot to cool growing terrestrial herb found in Florida, the caribbean, Central America, South America and the Caribbean at elevations of 100 to 1200 meters where it blooms on a stout erect scape terminating in a glandular-pubescent, 1 to 3' long, densely many flowered racemose inflorescence occuring in the spring through fall.

    Synonyms Gyrostachys aphylla (Hook.) Kuntze 1891; Gyrostachys lanceolata (Aubl.) Kuntze 1891; Gyrostachys orchioides (Sw.) Kuntze 1891; Gyrostachys stenorrhynchus Kuntze 1891; Ibidium cristalligerum Salisb. 1812; * Limodorum lanceolatum Aubl. 1775; Neottia aphylla Hook. 1828; Neottia lanceolata (Aubl.) Willd 1805; Neottia orchioides (Sw.) Willd. 1799; Neottia plantaginea Hkr. 1827; Neottia squamulosa Kunth 1816; Sacoila lanceolata (Aubl.) Garay 1982; Sacoila lanceolata var. squamulosa (Kunth) Szlach. 1994; Sacoila lurida Raf. 1836; Sacoila squamulosa (Kunth) Garay 1982; Satyrium orchioides Sw. 1788; Serapias coccinea Vellozo 1827; Spiranthes jaliscana S. Watson 1891; Spiranthes lanceolata (Aubl.) León 1946; Spiranthes orchioides (Sw.) A. Rich. 1850; Spiranthes orchioides (Sw.) Hemsl. 1884; Stenorrhynchos aphyllus (Hook.) Lindl 1840; Stenorrhynchos australis Lindl. 1840; Stenorrhynchos jaliscana (S. Watson) Nash 1895; Stenorrhynchos orchioides (Sw.) Richard ex Sprengel 1826; Stenorrhynchos orchioides (Sw.) Richard ex Sprengel var australis [Lindley] Cogn. 1895; Stenorrhynchos orchioides (Sw.) Richard ex Sprengel var plataginea [Hkr.] Lindley 1840; Stenorrhynchos squamulosum (Kunth) Spreng.1826

    Stenorrhynchos lanceolatum (Aubl.) Rich. ex Spreng. var. paludicola

    Found in Florida

  119. Tetramicra canaliculata [Aubl]Urban
  120. Photo courtesy of Jay Pfahl

    A warm growing lithophytic or epiphytic Florida and Caribbean native found in lowland scrub with sticklike pseudobulbs, and blooms in succession in late spring and summer.

    Synonyms Bletia pratensis Rchb. f.; Bletia rigida Rchb.f; Bletia schomburgkii Rchb. f.; Brassavola elegans Hook.; Brassavola rigida Bold.; Cymbidium rigidum Willd.; Cyrtopodium elegans Hamilton; *Limodorum canaliculatum Aubl.; Tetramicara elegans [Hamilton] Cogn.; Tetramicra rigida [Wilde] Lindley;

  121. !Tipularia discolor (Pursh) Nutt. 1818
  122. Photo courtesy of Mike and Candy Joehrendt


    Common Name Crane Fly Orchid

    Flower Size about 1/2"

    Found in the NE USA south to Florida and west to Nebraska and Texas as a terrestrial in deciduous and ciniferous forests along banks of streams and blooms on an erect, 4 to 18" long, racemose, many flowered successive opening inflorescence occuring in the late spring to early fall.

    Synonyms *Orchis discolor Pursh 1814; Tipularia unifolia (Muhl.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. ?

  123. Tolumnia bahamense(Nash) Braem
  124. Photo courtesy of Stephen Jones

    An small eqitant epiphytic species found in scrub Rosemary bushes in Florida and the Bahamas.

    Synonyms *Oncidium bahamense Nash

  125. Tolumnia variegata (Sw.) Braem
  126. Photo courtesy of Jay Pfahl

    to Found on the island of Hispanola and Cuba as an equitant creeping epiphytic miniature found in dry scrub, woods or fence posts at sealevel to 700 meters hot grower with 1/2" flowers that are fragrant and long-lasting and occur in the spring.

    Synonyms *Epidendrum variegatum Sw.; Oncidium variegatum [Sw.]Willd.

  127. Triphora cubensis [Rchb.f] Ames
  128. Triphora trianthophora [Sw.] Rybd.
  129. Tropidia polystachya [Sw.]Ames
  130. Vanilla barbellata Rchb.f 1865
  131. Photo courtesy of Mark Nir and Orchidaceae Antillannae


    Common Name Link-Vine; Worm-Vine; Leafless Vanilla

    Flower Size 2"

    Found in Cuba, South Florida, the Bahamas, and elsewhere in the Caribbean as a hot to warm growing epiphyte that blooms on a short, axillary, racemose, several flowered inflorescence with fleshy, fragrant, shortlived, successive opening flowers occuring in the spring and summer.

    Synonyms Vanilla articulata Northrop. 1902

  132. Vanilla dilloniana Correl.
  133. Vanilla phaeantha Rchb.f
  134. Vanilla planifolia Jacks. ex Andrews
  135. Photo courtesy ofGreg Allikas and His Orchid Photo Page

    to Found in Florida, the West Indies, Central America and Northern South America at lower elevations as a warm to intermediate growing epiphytic vine with leaves at intervals along the stem that blooms throughout the year if well grown and it's pods are used to produce essence of Vanilla.

    Synonyms Myrobroma fragrans Salisb.; Vanilla fragrans (Salisb.) Ames

  136. !Zeuxine strateumatica (L.) Schltr. 1911
  137. Photo courtesy of Robert Bussey


    Common Name Zeuxine Orchid

    Flower Size less than 1/2"

    This small terrestrial species is widespread in the old world and has been introduced to south Florida, Mexico and south through the Americas as a cool to hot growing, miniature terrestrial of open grasslands that blooms on a terminal, densly 2 to many flowered on a cylindrical rachis with lanceolate, acuminate bracts occuring in the winter and early spring.

    Synonyms Adenostylis strateumatica (L.) Ames 1908; Adenostylis sulcata (Lindl.) Hayata 1917; *Orchis strateumatica L. 1717; Spiranthes strateumatiaca (L.) Lindl.; Strateuma zeylanica Raf. 1836; Tripleura pallida Lindl. 1832; Zeuxine rupicola Fuk.; Zeuxine sulcata Lindley 1840

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