!Caularthron bicornutum [Hooker]Raf. 1836

Photo by Jay Pfahl

FragranceFull sunWarmTo Hot Winter TO Spring

Common Name Virgin or Virgin Mary Diacrium

Flower Size Up to 3" [5 cm]

Found in Venezuela, Guyana, Fr Guiana, Surinam, , Brazil and Trinidad and Tobago is often found close to the sea on rocks or cliffs or rivers as a medium sized, hot to warm growing, epiphytic or occasional lithophytic species with long-cylindrical, fusiform or elongate-ovoid pseudobulbs enveloped by white, papery bracts carrying, 3 to 4, towards the apex, oblong or elliptic-oblong, fleshy, coriaceous, obtuse leaves that blooms in the winter through the spring on a 6 to 16" [15 to 40 cm] long, slender, terminal, erect raceme that has a few to many [3 to 20] sequentially opening, fragrant fruit, cotton candy, raspberrys and strawberry scented, waxy flowers with small bracts and twisted pedicels that are longlasting and arise on newly matured pseudobulbs. The inflorescence appear in the fall and grow through the winter for a late winter through spring blooming.

They are often found in association with ants that live in a hollow cavity with an entrance at the base of the older pseudobulbs. This species can bloom out of the apex of a newly emerging pseudobulb that will not develop further if the plant is under stress. Bright light, ample water while growing and a lessening in the winter ensures a healthy regular blooming plant.

Synonyms Diacrium amazonicum Schlechter 1925; Diacrium bicornutum [Hkr.]Benth. 1881; *Epidendrum bicornutum Hooker 1834

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list , IPNI ; Bonplandia Rchb.f 1854 as Epidendrum bicornutum; Bonplandia Rchb.f 1856 as Epidendrum bicornutum; Symbolae Antillanae Vol VI Orchidaceae Urban 1909 as Diacrium bicornutum; Die Orchideen Schlechter 1915 as Diacrium bicornutum photo fide; Orchidaenfloren Kordillerenstaaten 1: Venezuela Schlechter 1920; Atlas des Orchidees Cultivees Constantin 1920 as Diacrium bicornutum drawing fide; Iconografia de Orchidaceae Do Brasil Hoehne 1949 drawing fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 26 No 2 1957; AOS Bulletin Vol 26 No 10 1957 as Diacrium bicornutum photo fide; Venezuelan Orchids Illustrated Vol 1 Dunsterville & Garay 1959 drawing fide; Native Orchids of Trinidad Schultes 1960; AOS Orchid Culture 1963 photo fide; Encyclopedia of Cultivated Orchids Hawkes 1965; AOS Bulletin Vol 36 #4 1967 as Diacrium bicornutum photo fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 36 # 9 1967; Flora de Venezuela Foldats Volumen XV Part 3 1970 drawing fide; Orchidaceae Brasilenses Band 1 Pabst & Dungs 1975 drawing fide; Die Orchideen 3 Auflage Bd 1 Sonderabdruck aus Schlechter Lieferung 10 576 - 632 Brieger, Maatsch and Senghas 1977 photo fide; Orquideologia Vol 12 3/4 1977/8; AOS Bulletin Vol 47 No 7 1978 drawing fide; Orchids of Venezuela; An Illustrated Field Guide Vol 1 Dunsterville & Garay 1979 drawing fide; Orchids of Venezuela; An Illustrated Field Guide Dunsterville & Garay 1979; An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Orchids Pridgeon 1982; The Manual of Cultivated Orchids Bechtel, Cribb & Laurent 1982; The Orchids of Surinam Werkhoven 1986 photo fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 56 No 3 1987 photo fide; Native Orchids of the Eastern Caribbean Kenny 1988; Orchids of Brazil McQueen 1993; Manual of Orchids Stewart 1995; Venezuela; Paraiso de Orquideas Romero 1997 photo fide; Cattleyas and Their Relatives Vol V Withner 1998 photo fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 68 #5 1999 photo fide; Orchids of Venezuela [An illustrated field guide] Vol. 1 Ramiro and Carnevali 2000 drawing fide; Orchid Digest Vol 65 Vol 3 2001 photo fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 71 No 1 2002 photo fide; AOS Bulletin Vol 71 #8 paostage Stamp fide; Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana Vol 7 Steyermark, Berry, Yatskievych and Holst 2003 drawing fide; Botanica's Orchids Laurel Glen 2003; AOS Bulletin Vol 73 No 8 2004; Genera Orcidacearum Vol 4 Part 1 Pridgeon, Cribb, Chase and Rasmusen 2005 drawing/photo fide; Flora's Orchids Nash & La Croix 2005; Orquideas de la Serrania del Baudo Misas Urreta 2006 drawing/photo not = C bilamellatum; AOS Bulletin vol 78 No 10 2009 photo fide; Orquideas de Roirama Luz & Franco 2012 photo fide; Orchids, A Colombian Treasure Vol 1 Ortiz & Uribe 2014 drawing/photo fide; Orchid Digest Vol 80 #2 2016