Epidendrum paniculatum Ruiz and Pavon 1798 GROUP Pseudepidendrum SUBGROUP Paniculatum TYPE for the Group

Close up Photos by © Delsy Trujillo

Drawing Drawing by © Eric Hagsater

Fragrance Part sun Cool to ColdLate Summer THROUGH LATEwinter

Common Name The Paniculate Epidendrum

Flower Size about 1" [about 2.5 cm]

Found only in Peru [see note below] in wet tropical forests at elevations of 1700 to 2800 meters as a medium to giant sized, variable, erect, cool to cold growing epiphytic species with clustered, cane-like, terete, straight stems enveloped by grey to brown leaf-sheaths carrying 18 to 20, all along the stem, alternate, articulate, erect-spreading, often purple tinged with longitudinal reddish lines, elliptic, short acuminate, margin entire, purplish, basally clasping leaves that blooms in the late summer through late winter on an apical, paniculate [3 to 8 racemes], occuring only once, erect to suberect, laterally compressed below, loose, to 9.6" to 11.6" [24 to 29 cm] long, including the 1.6 to 2.8" [4 to 7 cm] long peduncle, terminal raceme or panicle with lanceolate, acute bracts at the base of each branch with a few to many fragrant, variable in color flowers opening in succession over a long period of time.

Eric Hagsater has undertaken a great revision of this species complex and he has separated out 6 species throughout the larger E paniculatum subgroup range and has now revealed the original Peruvian endemic species that typifies this species. The photos by Delsy Trujillo are what Hagsater uses to illustrate his species concept.

"The species is recognized by the intermediate sized plants, paniculate inflorescence, .48 to .52" [12 to 13 mm] long sepals, the mid-lobe of the lip bifid, with the lobes divaricate, opposite, falcate, with the width between the tips greater than between the edges of the lateral lobes, the flowers green with the column white and the disc surrounded by more or less solid reddish spots, and a few dots on the ribs. Epidendrum macroceras Schltr. from northern Colombia has very long, falcate, oblong, truncate apical lobes of the lip, and the basal lobes longer towards the apex than towards the base; the color of the flowers is yellow-green with the apex of the column and the lip white. Epidendrum angaritae Hágsater is somewhat similar, but the apical lobes are acute and straight, not falcate, and the basal lobes of the lip longer at the base. Epidendrum atroscriptum Hágsater which is endemic to Mexico and Guatemala is very similar but the flowers are successive, sepals (dorsally) and ovary are furfuraceous, the lip has a densely dotted purple spot on the disc. Epidendrum veroscriptum Hágsater, also from Mexico, is very similar but flowers are simultaneous, the sepals (dorsally) and ovary furfuraceous, the lateral lobes of the lip dolabriform, and the disc of the lip generally is surrounded by a ring of purple dots. Epidendrum piliferum Rchb.f. from Costa Rica and Panama has taller plants to 80" [200 cm] leaves 5.2 to 9" x .6 to 2.2" [13.5 to 22.5 x 1.5 to 5.5 cm], sepals .5 to .68" [12.5 to 17 mm] long, the ovary has moniliform trichomes, and the disc of the lip has 5 irregularly dotted lines on the ribs. Epidendrum santiagense Hágsater & Dodson from Ecuador has somewhat larger apple-green flowers, sepals .6" [15 mm] long, the lip and apex of the column white, the disc of the lip with 5 lines of reddish dots, and the ovary densely papillose. Epidendrum weerakitianum Hágsater, O.Pérez & E.Santiago has somewhat larger flowers, sepals .6" [15 mm] long, petals .68" [17 mm], lateral lobes of the lip dolabriform, with 5 ribs on the disc, the ribs strongly decorated with purple lines. Epidendrum kolanowskae Hágsater, O.Pérez & E.Santiago has somewhat smaller plants, 16.8" [42 cm] tall, the lip convex with the lateral lobes dolabriform, and the mid-lobe forming a pair of slightly divaricate, straight, linear lobes; the disc of the lip slightly spotted with purple. .Epidendrum rhaibogyrum Hágsater & E.Santiago has .32 to .4" [8 to 10 mm] long sepals, the lip has a purple zigzag circle around the disc, and dots on the ribs, the lateral lobes are sub-quadrate." Hagsater 2013

Synonyms Epidendrum atacazoicum Schltr 1921; Epidendrum bifalce Schltr. 1929; Epidendrum brachythyrsus Kraenzl 1911; Epidendrum caloglossum Schltr. 1921; Epidendrum densiflorum Hooker 1840; Epidendrum fastigiatum Lindl. 1853; Epidendrum floribundum var. convexum Lindl. 1853; Epidendrum isthmi Schlechter 1922; Epidendrum longicrure Schltr. 1920; Epidendrum ornatum Lem. 1848; Epidendrum paniculatum var. longicrure Lindl. 1853; Epidendrum piliferum Rchb.f 1877; Epidendrum reflexum A&S 1925; Epidendrum rubrocinctum Lindl. 1843; Epidendrum syringaeflorum Warsz. ex Rchb. f. 1854; Epidendrum turialvae Rchb.f 1871

References W3 Tropicos, Kew Monocot list IPNI ; Bonplandia Rchb.f 1854 as E laeve; Bonplandia Rchb.f 1856; Bonplandia Rchb.f 1856 as E laeve; Bonplandia Rchb.f 1856 as E floribundum; Otia Botanica Hamburgensia Rchb.f 1878 as E laeve; Otia Botanica Hamburgensia Rchb.f 1878 as E fastigiatum; Symbolae Antillanae Vol VI Orchidaceae Urban 1909; Die Orchideen Schlechter 1915; Die Orchideen Schlechter 1915; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 6: 69 Schlechter 1919 as E floribundum; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 6: 71 Schlechter 1919; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 7: 247 Schlechter 1920 as E fastigiatum; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 7: 247 Schlechter 1920 as E floribundum; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 7: 250 Schlechter 1920; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 7: 137 Schlechter 1920 as E longicrure; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 7: 138 Schlechter 1920 as E macroceras; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 7: 247 Schlechter 1920 as Epidendrum floribundum; Atlas des Orchidees Cultivees Constantin 1920 drawing ok; Atlas des Orchidees Cultivees Constantin 1920 as E floribundum drawing ok; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 8: 68 Schlechter 1921 as E caloglossum; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 10: 44 Schlechter 1922 as E humidicolum; Repert. Sp. Nov. Regni. Veg. Beih. 17: 34. Panama Schlechter 1922 E isthmi; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 10: 71 Bolivia Schlechter 1922; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. Figuren -Atlas 57: 336 Schlechter 1929 as E caloglossum drawing fide; The Genus Epidendrum Ames 1936; The Orchids of Panama L.O. Williams & P Allen 1946; Iconografia de Orchidaceae Do Brasil Hoehne 1949 drwaing fide; Ceiba Vol 5 No 1 L O Williams 1956; AOS Bulletin Vol 27 No 6 1958; Orchids of Peru Vol 2 Fieldiana Schweinfurth 1959; Orchids of Peru Vol 2 Fieldiana Schweinfurth 1959 e paniculatum var linearifolium; Venezuelan Orchids Illustrated Vol 2 Dunsterville & Garay 1961 not =E densiflorum; AOS Bulletin Vol 31 No 11 1962 photo ok; Encyclopedia of Cultivated Orchids Hawkes 1965 as E paniculatum; AOS Bulletin Vol 36 #9 1967 as Epidendrum fastigatum; AOS Bulletin VOl 38 No 6 1969; Flora de Venezuela Foldats Volumen XV Part 3 1970 drawing ok; Flora of the Lesser Antilles Garay & Sweet 1974 appendix; Orchidaceae Brasilense Band 1 Pabst & Dungs 1975 drawing good; Die Orchideen 3 Auflage Bd 1 Sonderabdruck aus Schlechter Lieferung 9 513 - 576 Brieger, Maatsch and Senghas 1977 as E rubrocinctum photo fide; Die Orchideen 3 Auflage Bd 1 Sonderabdruck aus Schlechter Lieferung 9 513 - 576 Brieger, Maatsch and Senghas 1977; AOS Bulletin Vol 49 No 5 1979; Icones Planetarum Tropicarum plate 082 Dodson 1980 see observations; Icones Planetarum Tropicarum plate 382 Dodson 1980 drawing fide; Icones Planetarum Tropicarum plate 742 Dodson 1982 see observations as Epidendrum turialvae; Orchid DIgest VOl 49 No 3 1985 as E cryptoglossum drawing fide; Icones Planetarum Tropicarum plate 1323 Atwood 1989 drawing ok; A Guide to Orchids of the World Hodgson, Paine and Anderson 1991 photo fide; Inventaire Taxominique des Plantes de la Guyane Francaise Vol II Les Orchidaceaes Cremers and Hoff 1992; The Manual Of Cultivated Orchid Species Bechtel, Cribb & Launert 1992 photo fide; Icones Orchidacearum 2 Plate 102 Hagsater & Sanchez 1993 see recognition section;Icones Orchidacearum 2 Plate 108 Hagsater & Sanchez 1993 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 2 plate 109 Hagsater & Salazar 1993 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 2 Plate 108 Hagsater 1993 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 2 Plate 156 Hagsater 1993 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 2 Plate 173 Hagsater & Dodson 1993 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 2 Plate 180 Hagsater 1993 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 2 Plate 181 Hagsater & Sanchez 1993 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 2 plate 183 Hagsater & Salazar 1993 see recognition section as E isthmusii; Icones Orchidacearum 2 Plate 187 Hagsater & Dodson 1993 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 2 plate 196 Hagsater & Salazar 1993 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 2 Plate 197 Hagsater 1993 see recogntion section; Icones Orchidacearum Peruviarum Plate 249 Bennett & Christenson 1995 see observations; Manual Of Orchids Stewart 1995 as E floribundum; Icones Orchidacearum Peruviarum Plate 466 Bennett & Christenson 1998 see observations; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 302 Hagsater 1999 see recogntion section; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 307 Hagsater 1999 see recogntion section; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 384 Hagsater 1999 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 347 Hagsater 1999 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 348 Hagsater & Sanchez 1999 see recognition section;Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 380 Hagsater 1999 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 3 Plate 382 Hagsater 1999 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 4 Plate 404 Hagsater 2001 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 4 Plate 438 Hagsater 2001 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 4 Plate 446 Hagsater 2001 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 4 Plate 471 Hagsater 2001 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 4 Plate 489 Hagsater 2001 see recognition section; Machu Picchu Orchids Christenson 2003 photo not = E christonsonii; Orchids of Bolivia Vol 2 Laelinae Vasquez and Ibisch 2004; Orchids of The Brazilian Central Plateau Menezes 2004 photo fide; Orquideologia 24: 3 Ortiz & Hagsater 2005; Vanishing Beauty; Native Costa Rican Orchids Vol 1 Pupulin 2005 as Epidendrum isthmusii; Vanishing Beauty; Native Costa Rican Orchids Vol 1 Pupulin 2005 as as Epidendrum piliferum; Orquideas de la Serrania del Baudo Misas Urreta 2005 drawing/photo not = E sp; Icones Orchidacearum Vol 11 Plate 1131 Hagsater & Sanchez 2008Icones Orchidacearum Vol 11 Plate 1132 Hagsater & Sanchez 2008 as Epidendrum isthmii; Icones Orchidacearum Vol 11 Plate 1131 Hagsater & Sanchez 2008 in recognition section as Epidendrum resectum; Icones Orchidacearum Vol 11 Plate 1170 Hagsater & Sanchez 2008 as Epidendrum resectum; Icones Orchidacearum Vol 11 Plate 1196 Hagsater & Sanchez 2008 as E verricipes; The Organ Mountain Range Its History and its Orchids Miller, Warren, Miller & Seehawer 2008 drawing/photo good; Orchid Digest Vol 73 #3 2009; Orquideologia 27:#1 Ortiz & Hagsater 2010 photo fide; Icones Orchidacearum 13 Plate 1303 Hagsater 2010 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 13 Plate 1336 Hagsater & Santiago 2010 as E fastigiatum See recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 13 Plate 1344 Hagsater 2010 as E laeve drawing fide; Icones Orchidacearum 13 Plate 1379 Hagsater & Dodson 2010 See Recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 13 Plate 1385 Hagsater & Santiago 2010 as E fastigiatum See recognition section; Orquideas del Peru Freuler 2010 photo ok; An Illustrated Field Guide to the Orchids of the Yotoco Forest Reserve Colombia Kolanowska, Escobar, Sanchez & Szlachetko 2011 drawing hmm; Orchids of French Guiana Szlachetko, Veyret, etal 2012 drawing/photos fide; Icones Orchidacearum 14 Plate 1418 Hagsater & Santiago 2013 See recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 14 Plate 1427 Hagsater & Santiago 2013 as E caloglossum See recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 14 Plate 1428 Hagsater & Santiago 2013 See recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 14 Plate 1440 Hagsater & Santiago 2013 See recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 14 Plate 1447 Hagsater & Santiago 2013 See recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 14 Plate 1468 Hagsater & Sanchez 2013 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 14 Plate 1469 Hagsater & Sanchez 2013 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 14 Plate 1470 Hagsater & Sanchez 2013 see recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 14 Plate 1494 Hagsater & Santiago 2013 See recognition section; Icones Orchidacearum 14 Plate 1495 Hagsater & Santiago 2013 See recognition section; Orchids of the Darien Gap Kolanowska 2014 drawing fide; Orchid Digest Vol 79 #3 2015 photo fide; Icones Orchidacearum 15 [1] Plate 1526 Hagsater & Sanchez 2015 see recognition section; Orquideas, Tesoro de Colombia Vol 2 Ortiz & Uribe 2017 drawing good;

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